Information For Authors

General information

CIAO® journal publishes original full length scientific manuscripts, review articles, short communications including case reports, editorials, commentaries, conference abstracts and letters. Such submissions should have potential for positive impact on cancer control effort in Africa and people of African descent all over the world. Since CIAO journal has no print version, there is no restriction on the number of pages, word count, references, and tables or figures as long as they contribute significantly to the scientific value of the manuscript. Articles should be submitted in any of the acceptable word processing format through the online submission portal. Manuscripts for publication should be prepared in keeping with the guidelines of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals ( In addition, authors should show documentary evidence of approval from their institution’s Ethics Board. Drug trials on human subjects must satisfy the national regulatory protocol and the Consort Statement ( ). Manuscripts may be rejected if the editorial office considers that the research has not been carried out within an ethical framework.

Manuscript main text File format: CIAO journal accepts the following word processor file formats Microsoft Word (version 5 and above), WordPerfect (version 5 and above), Rich text format (RTF) and Portable document format (PDF). Any other word processing file format is acceptable should be converted to one of these before uploading. The uploaded file will be converted to a portable PDF file format before it is sent for review. Photographs should be submitted in jpeg and TIFF formats only. We will also accept video submissions in mpeg4, divx and other common video formats Each manuscript should contain the following sections: Title page, Abstract, Introduction Patients and methods, Results, Discussion, including conclusion(s), Acknowledgement, References, Tables and captions (if any), Figure legends (if any), and Description of additional data files (if any). Each section of the manuscript should start on a fresh page.

Title page: Should include the Title of the paper with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized, Author(s) name(s) and highest academic qualifications, Address of the institution(s) where the work was carried out, Corresponding author with the address, e-mail, fax and telephone number. A running title should be included on all the pages.


This should be structured with the following sections: Background, Aims and Objectives, Design of the study, Setting, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusion. The abstract should not be more than 350 words.

Key words:

These should not be more than eight words. Each key word should start with a capital letter


This section should set the background for the study and clear specify the aims and objectives of the study.

Patients and Methods:

This section should describe the study population, the problems as well as the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Details of what was done should be described in a concise but comprehensive way. Statistical analysis of outcome should indicate what was analyzed and which software was used for analysis.

Results: This should be a presentation of the outcome of the study in a logical sequence, in prose, with numbers, their percentages, tables and figures included.

Discussion: The main findings of the study should be highlighted as well as the significance of the findings, citation of references to buttress the findings and other published works with alternative/opposing findings. The strengths and weaknesses of the study design and the limitations of the findings should be discussed. This section should end with a definite conclusion from the study.

References Authors are responsible for verification of references from the original sources. The Vancouver System of reference also called the citation order system should be used. International abbreviation of journals can be accessed from the Journal Database on the PubMed homepage. Names and initials of all authors should be included. First and last page numbers should be given.

Journal references should appear thus:

1. Fregene A and Newman LA. Breast Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa: How Does It Relate to Breast Cancer in African-American Women? Cancer 2005; 103: 1540–50. Book references should be set out as follows:Parkin OM, Ferlay J, Hamdi-Cherif M, Sitas F, Thomas JO, Wabinga H and Whelan SL. Cancer in Africa: Epidemiology and Prevention. Lyon: IARC Press, 2003: 266 – 271 Sidransky D. Molecular Biology of Head and Neck Tumors. In: Devita VT, Hellman S and Rosenberg SA. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001: 68 Manuscripts accepted but not yet published can be included as references followed by (in press). Unpublished observations and personal communications may be cited in the text, but not in the reference list


Web links and URLs should be included in the reference list. They should be provided in full, including both the title of the site and the URL, in the following format: Use of complementary and alternative medicine by cancer patients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria (


This page provides the author the opportunity to formally acknowledge the assistance of those who had contributed some efforts to the outcome of the work and its presentation but do not qualify to be co-authors.

Conflict of interest page

Authors must declare all sources of support for the research and any association with the product or subject that may constitute conflict of interest. All personal interests/gains that have potential to bias the conduct, results and presentation of the study should be declared. Conflicts of interest should be declared without ambiguity and when there is none, should also be stated.

Tables and Illustrations

Tables should be identified as such while all other illustrations should be referred to as figures. Tables or Figures should be identified sequentially as they appear in the manuscript. Tables that are not very large should be submitted with the main text and placed with their captions after references. Very large tables should be uploaded as separate file under the additional file heading. All figures including illustrations should be attached as separate files and must be easily identified. Each figure should comprise only a single file. There is no charge for the use of color. Legends to the figures should be placed in the main text after the tables and must be clearly linked to the figure by the reference number in the text. Figures of human subjects submitted for publication should be shielded from identification. Indicate where tables and figures should be located in body of text.

Protection of patient’s rights to privacy

Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Consent here requires that the patient be shown the manuscript to be published. (

Additional files

Additional files and details not accommodated in the main text and which may be of interest to some readers can be uploaded under this heading. Such files may include Research tools like Questionnaire used in research, movies, animations, or original data files. Any additional files will be linked into the final published article in the form supplied by the author, but will not be displayed within the paper. They will be made available in exactly the same form as originally provided. When additional materials are included, the following information should be listed in a separate section of the manuscript text, immediately following the legends for figures (if any): File name, file format (including name and a URL of an appropriate viewer if format is unusual), title of data, and description of data Additional data files should be referenced explicitly by file name within the body of the article, e.g. 'See additional file 1: Movie1 for the original data used to perform this analysis

Style and language

CIAO journal accepts manuscripts only in English language. UK and US spelling are both acceptable, but author(s) must be consistent throughout the manuscript. Texts should be typed double spaced, unjustified and without hyphenating words at line breaks. Capitalize only the first word, and proper nouns, in the title and headings. All pages should be numbered. Abbreviations should be spelt out when first used in the text and thereafter used consistently. Scientific measurements should be expressed in SI units except: blood pressure should be given in mmHg and hemoglobin values in g/dl.

Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review the About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process.